Bath salts (drug)
Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as bath salts, are drugs that contain one or more human-made chemicals related to cathinone, a stimulant found in the khat plant. Synthetic cathinones are marketed as cheap substitutes for other stimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine. May 16, · Bath salts are noted for producing a "high" similar to methamphetamine: the sought after effects may include: euphoria. increased wakefulness, concentration. elevated sex drive. hallucinations. talkativeness. empathy. a "rush".
Cathinone is a stimulant found naturally in the khat plant, grown in East Africa and southern Arabia. These lab-made cathinones can be much stronger than the plant product and can cause harmful effects. These names or descriptions have nothing to do with the product. Epsom salts are made of a mineral mixture of magnesium and sulfate. Snorting or injecting is the most harmful. Although the law also bans chemically similar versions of some of these drugs, manufacturers have responded by making new drugs different enough from the banned substances to get around the law.
To protect the public, the government is constantly monitoring newer formulas. But they can also cause paranoia, nervousness, and hallucinations seeing or hearing things that are not real.
Researchers do know that bath salts are chemically similar to amphetamines, cocaine, and MDMA. These drugs change the way the brain works by changing the way nerve cells communicate. Nerve cells, called neurons, send messages to each other by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters. Drugs affect this signaling process.
Dopamine is what is the best waterproof paint for a basement main neurotransmitter that relates to the brain's reward system — the system that tells us we feel good. Circuits in the reward system use dopamine to teach the brain to repeat actions we find pleasurable.
Drugs take control of this system, releasing large amounts of dopamine — first in response to the drug but later mainly in response to other cues associated with the drug, like when you see people you use drugs with, or plases where you use drugs. The result is an intensive motivation to seek the drug. These drugs raise levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Learn more about how the brain works and what happens when a person uses drugs.
And, check out how the brain responds to natural rewards and to drugs. These reports show people who use bath salts have needed help for heart problems such as racing heart, high blood pressure, and chest pains and symptoms like paranoia, hallucinations, and panic attacks.
They might also have dehydration, breakdown of muscle tissue attached to bones, and kidney failure. Read more about the link between viral infections and drug use. Intoxication from several man-made cathinones, including MDPV, mephedrone, methedrone, and butylone, has caused death among some people who have used bath salts. Snorting or needle injection of bath salts seems to cause the most harm.
Learn more about drug overdoses in youth. Another danger of "bath salts" is that they might contain other ingredients that cause their own harmful effects. There is no way to know what is in a dose of bath salts other than testing it in a lab.
In turn, there have been reports of other drugs containing bath salts. For example, hundreds of ecstasy capsules tested in two South Florida crime labs in contained methylone, a dangerous synthetic cathinone. Research shows bath salts are highly addictive. Frequent use might cause tolerance a person needs what does rpt stand for in citation take more of the drug to feel the same effectsdependence, and strong withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug.
Withdrawal symptoms might include:. If a friend is using drugs, you might have to step away from the friendship for a while. It is important to protect your own mental health and not put yourself in situations where drugs are being used. This lesson, developed in partnership with Scholastic, provides scientific information about teen brain development and the effect of drugs and These community activities are designed to help students in grades 6 through 12 learn about the effects of drug use National Institutes of Health.
Bath Salts. Expand All What happens to your brain when you use synthetic cathinones "bath salts"? What happens to your body when you use synthetic cathinones "bath salts"? Can you overdose or die if you use synthetic cathinones "bath salts"?
What are the other risks of using synthetic cathinones "bath salts"? Are synthetic cathinones "bath salts" addictive? Withdrawal symptoms might include: depression anxiety tremors problems sleeping paranoia. What should I do if someone I know needs help? If you, or a friend, are in crisis and need to speak with someone now: Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at TALK they don't just talk about suicide—they cover a lot of issues and will help put you in touch with someone close by If you want to help a friend, you can: Share resources from this site, including this page.
Encourage your friend to speak with a trusted adult. Where can I get more information? Resources for Educators Image. Drugs and the Teen Brain This lesson, developed in partnership with Scholastic, provides scientific information about teen brain development and the effect of drugs and Featured Videos. Bath Salts with Dr. Michael Baumann. Content on this site is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from NIDA.
Department of Health and Human Services. What are in bath salts HHS Syndication Storefrontyou may promote this high-quality content on your website and it will take on the look and feel of your site. This syndicated how to check spam messages on facebook will also update content in real-time, leaving you free from having to perform manual updates.
How do people use synthetic cathinones?
Synthetic stimulants often referred to as “bath salts” are from the synthetic cathinone class of drugs. Synthetic cathinones are central nervous stimulants and are designed to mimic effects similar to those produced by cocaine, methamphetamine, and MDMA (ecstasy). “Bath salts” is the name given to synthetic cathinones, a class of drugs that have one or more laboratory-made chemicals similar to cathinone. Cathinone is a stimulant found naturally in the khat plant, grown in East Africa and southern Arabia. May 07, · Epsom Salt (aka magnesium sulfate) technically aren’t salt at all. But for the purposes of bath salts, we call Epsom salt “salt.” Epsom salt dissolves nicely in hot water and releases magnesium .
Bath salts are a designer drug of abuse with reports of dangerous intoxication from emergency departments across the US. These mind-altering drugs are strong central nervous system stimulants that inhibit the dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake system neurotransmitters in the brain.
Balt salts can lead to serious, and even fatal adverse reactions. The drug effect is a high or "rush" that is similar to methamphetamine speed.
They are often sold on the street as cheap substitutes for other stimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine. The most commonly reported ingredient is methylenedioxypyrovalerone MDPV , although other stimulants may be present, such as mephedrone and pyrovalerone. Khat is a shrub found in East Africa and southern Arabia.
Mephedrone has been reported to have a high potential for overdose. MDMA is a schedule I hallucinogenic substance and cathinone derivatives cathinone, methcathinone are listed as schedule I stimulants. Animals studies have demonstrated elevated levels of extracellular dopamine 60 minutes after administration of MDVP. Users usually snort the drug up the nose, but it can also been injected, smoked, swallowed or used rectally.
Toxic doses for the newer synthetic cathinones such as bath salts have not yet been determined 9 , and doses can be variable due to the illegal nature of the drug. There is a great risk for overdose because packages may contain up to milligrams. If ingested orally, absorption is rapid with a peak "rush" at 1. The total experience may last upwards of 8 hours or longer. Bath salts are noted for producing a "high" similar to methamphetamine: the sought after effects may include:.
Sympathomimetic effects are similar to those caused by methamphetamine, ecstasy , and cocaine. Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue rhabdomyolysis may occur, leading to kidney failure. Accidental deaths due to overdose and bath salt-related suicides have been reported.
The effects or "high" of using bath salts can last up to four to eight hours, but it may take a full two days to come down from the high according to some reports. Dangerous physical side effects, such as such as fast heart rate and high blood pressure, can be prolonged. Hallucinations and psychotic behavior can also be long-lived, even after the drug is eliminated from the body.
The use of bath salts has been reported to be on the rise. Prior to the federal ban, many states had enacted their own bans on at least some of the chemicals found in this these products. Before the DEA ruling making them illegal, bath salts were noted to be easily accessible in convenience stores, gas stations, over the Internet and in "head" or smoke shops. Most packages were labeled "not for human consumption". The powder appears white, off-white or slightly yellow. The pharmacological activity of MDPV, and related chemicals may result in serious and potentially fatal adverse effects.
MDPV inhibits the norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake system involving neurotransmitters in the brain and leads to central nervous system stimulation. Bath salts have been reported to have a powerful addictive potential , as well as the ability to induce tolerance more of the drug is required over time to get an equivalent "high". Reports note intense cravings similar to what methamphetamine users experience. As these agents bought on the street or online may be cut with other unknown and potentially addictive substances, the true magnitude of toxicity and addiction may be even higher.
Routine urine and blood drug screens do not usually test for bath salt psychoactive ingredients; however, tests are available to screen for synthetic cathinones. There are no FDA-approved medicines for synthetic cathinone addiction, such as with bath salts. Treatment for addiction to bath salts may involve a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational incentives. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
More drug approvals. What is in bath salts? Schedule I controlled substances cannot be sold under any circumstances and cannot be prescribed for medical purposes. The law also bans any future designer chemical compounds meant to mimic the effects of bath salts.
Having possession or selling these chemicals or any product that contains them is illegal in the US. What are the effects of bath salts? Bath salts are noted for producing a "high" similar to methamphetamine: the sought after effects may include: euphoria increased wakefulness, concentration elevated sex drive hallucinations talkativeness empathy a "rush".
Acute side effects may include: rapid heart rate chest pain high blood pressure hyperthermia elevated body temperature excess sweating diaphoresis pupil dilation mydriasis vessel constriction reduced appetite muscle spasm or tremor seizures.
Higher doses can lead to serious behavioral and psychiatric effects such as: severe panic attacks psychosis hallucinations, delusions paranoia extreme distrust agitation confusion insomnia inability to sleep irritability violent behavior.
Hydration, cardiac care and electrolyte abnormalities such as hyponatremia should be addressed. Rhabdomyolysis the destruction of muscle fibers and the release of myoglobin, a protein, into the bloodstream that may lead to kidney damage may occur, as well. N Engl J Med. Accessed online Aug. Nora D. Volkow, MD. Accessed Aug. DEA Fact Sheet. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone MDPV. ABC News. Lee Ferran. Department of Health and Human Services. Synthetic Cathinones "Bath Salts".
High on bath salts: what to know. Clinical Advisor. Ryan ML, Traub S, et al. Acute amphetamine and synthetic cathinone "bath salt" intoxication. Up to Date. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon. Life sciences. Department of Justice. August Recently Approved. Nextstellis Nextstellis drospirenone and estetrol is a progestin and estrogen combination Qelbree Qelbree viloxazine hydrochloride is a serotonin norepinephrine modulating Roszet Roszet ezetimibe and rosuvastatin is an intestinal cholesterol inhibitor and Subscribe to our newsletters.