U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
Biogas is primarily composed of methane gas, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. It occurs naturally in compost heaps, as swamp gas, and as a result of enteric fermentation in cattle and other ruminants. Which gases does biogas contain? Biogas consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. It can also include small amounts of hydrogen sulphide, siloxanes and some moisture. The relative quantities of these vary depending on the type of waste involved in the production of the resulting biogas.
Biogasnaturally occurring gas that is generated by the breakdown of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria and is used in energy production. Biogas differs from natural gas in that it is a renewable energy source produced biologically through anaerobic digestion rather than a fossil fuel produced by geological processes.
Biogas is primarily composed of methane gas, carbon dioxideand trace amounts of nitrogenhydrogenand what gases are in biogas monoxide. It occurs naturally in compost heaps, as swamp gas, and as a result of enteric fermentation in cattle and other ruminants. Biogas can also be produced in anaerobic digesters from plant or animal waste or collected from landfills. It is burned to generate heat or used in combustion engines to produce electricity. The use of biogas is a green technology with environmental benefits.
Biogas technology enables the effective use of accumulated animal waste from food production and of municipal solid waste from urbanization. The conversion of organic waste into biogas reduces production of the greenhouse gas methane, as efficient combustion replaces methane with carbon dioxide. Given that methane is nearly 21 times more effective in trapping heat bases the boogas than carbon dioxide, biogas combustion results in a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
Additionally, what kind of fish is bad for gout production on farms can reduce the odours, insectsand pathogens associated with traditional manure stockpiles.
Animal and plant wastes can be used to produce biogas. They are processed in anaerobic digesters as a liquid or as a slurry mixed with water. Anaerobic digesters are generally composed of a feedstock source holder, a digestion tank, a biogas recovery unit, and heat exchangers to maintain the temperature necessary for bacterial digestion.
Small-scale household digesters containing as little as litres gallons can be used to provide cooking fuel or electric lighting in rural homes. Millions of homes in less-developed regions, including China and parts of Africa, are estimated to use household digesters as a renewable energy source. Large-scale farm digesters store liquid or slurried manure from farm animals. The primary types of farm digesters are covered lagoon digesters, complete mix digesters for slurry manure, plug-flow digesters for dairy manure, and dry digesters for slurry manure and crop residues.
An efficient digester may produce — cubic metres 7,—14, cubic feet of biogas containing 50—75 percent methane per dry ton of input waste. The natural decomposition of organic matter in a landfill occurs over many years, and the biogas produced also known as landfill gas can be collected from a series of interconnected pipes located at various depths across the landfill.
The composition of this gas whst over the life span of the landfill. Generally, after one year, the gas is composed of about 60 percent methane and 40 percent carbon dioxide.
Landfill collection varies according to the percentage of organic waste and the age of the facility, the average energy potential being about 2 gigajoules 1, BTU per ton of waste. Landfill gas collection systems are increasingly being implemented to prevent explosions from methane accumulation inside the landfill or to prevent the loss of methane, a greenhouse gasinto the atmosphere. The collected gas can be burned at or near biogaw site in furnaces or boilers, but it is instead often used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines to create electricity, given the limited need for heat production at most remote landfill locations.
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Christopher A. See Article History. Human action has triggered a vast cascade of environmental problems that now threaten the continued ability of both natural and human systems to flourish. Solving the critical environmental problems of global warming, biogae scarcity, pollution, and biodiversity loss are perhaps the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Will we rise to meet them? Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Gasone of the three gasrs states of matter, with distinctly different properties from the liquid and solid states. Natural gas ae, colourless highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane and ethane. It is a type of petroleum that commonly occurs in association with crude oil. A fossil fuel, natural gas is used for ln generation, heating, and cooking and as a fuel for certain vehicles.
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More from HomeBiogas
Biogas is a type of biofuel that is naturally produced from the decomposition of organic waste. When organic matter, such as food scraps and animal waste, break down in an anaerobic environment (an environment absent of oxygen) they release a blend of gases, primarily methane and carbon dioxide. Because this decomposition happens in an anaerobic environment, the process of producing biogas is . Biogas is a renewable energy source produced by the breakdown of organic matter by certain bacteria under anaerobic conditions. It is a mixture of methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. It can be produced by agricultural waste, food waste, animal dung, manure, and sewage. Biogas is a mixture of methane, CO 2 and small quantities of other gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment. The precise composition of biogas depends on the type of feedstock and the production pathway; these include the following main technologies.
Biogas is a combustible gaseous fuel that is collected from the microbial degradation of organic matter in anaerobic conditions. Biogas is principally a mixture of methane CH 4 and carbon dioxide CO 2 along with other trace gases. Biogas can be collected from landfills, covered lagoons, or enclosed tanks called anaerobic digesters. Biogas is commonly made from animal manure, sludge settled from wastewater, and at landfills containing organic wastes.
However, biogas can also be made from almost any feedstock containing organic compounds, both wastes and biomass energy crops. Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are all readily converted to biogas. Many wastewaters contain organic compounds that may be converted to biogas including municipal wastewater, food processing wastewater and many industrial wastewaters. Solid and semi-solid materials that include plant or animal matter can be converted to biogas.
Methane is the principal gas in biogas. Methane is also the main component in natural gas, a fossil fuel. Biogas can be used to replace natural gas in many applications including: cooking, heating, steam production, electrical generation, vehicular fuel, and as a pipeline gas. Biogas is being collected and used to generate electricity or steam at many landfills, wastewater plants and breweries in Florida.
However, many opportunities for biogas production are yet to be implemented. Until recently, the low cost of fossil fuels has hindered implementation of biogas production. There is a limited awareness of the potential and advantages of biogas production by citizens, government officials, and in the business sector that has limited interest in biogas production. More education, demonstration and investment in biogas technology would help overcome these barriers.
The broad types of wastes and biomass feedstocks that are suitable for production of biogas and limited data on production levels and biogas yields make it difficult to accurately calculate the total amount of biogas, which can be produced in the state. If the annual biogas potential from only municipal wastewater, dairy manure, poultry manure, MSW, and energy crops is estimated, a rough potential of Biogas production can reduce the pollution potential in wastewater by converting oxygen demanding organic matter that could cause low oxygen levels in surface waters.
Nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorous are conserved in biogas effluents and can be used to displace fertilizers in crop production. While combustion of biogas, like natural gas, produces carbon dioxide CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, the carbon in biogas comes from plant matter that fixed this carbon from atmospheric CO2.
Thus, biogas production is carbon-neutral and does not add to greenhouse gas emissions. Further, any consumption of fossil fuels replaced by biogas will lower CO2 emissions. Biogas can be made at home or at a business from food waste, yard and grass trimmings, and some organic solid wastes. However, efficient use of biogas is more readily accomplished at larger scales.
A typical home might cook for an hour per day on biogas from home waste sources. Depending on the particular application this is very similar to current estimates for the cost of biogas production. More specific information can be found on this site and at the provided links. Soil and Water Sciences Department P.
University of Florida. What can biogas be made from? Can biogas be used in place of fossil fuels? Why aren't we doing more with biogas? What are the barriers to increasing biogas production and use? How much biogas can be produced in Florida annually? Does biogas contribute to climate change?
How much does biogas cost to make? Where can I go to get more information? Ann C.