What Metals Can Be Soldered? By Matthew Cote eHow may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. Soldering uses a metal alloy with a low melting point to join two base metals. Since this process alters the chemical makeup of the base metals, it's helpful to know which metals work without special consideration. Base Metals. This can allow for a completely new look of lustrous colors (think greens and turquoises in aged copper) or provide a more subdued, aged look — a favorite in country kitchens. Edge Styles. Numerous edge styles are available for metal countertops. On the softer metals, like zinc and pewter, edges can be shaped into customized, decorative designs.
Copper tubing is most often used for heating systems and as a refrigerant what is rambler style house in HVAC systems. Copper tubing is slowly being replaced by PEX tubing in hot and cold water applications. There are two basic types of copper tubing, soft copper and rigid copper.
Copper tubing is joined using flare connection, compression osldered, pressed connection, or solder. Copper offers a high level of corrosion resistance but is becoming very costly. Soft or ductile copper tubing can be bent easily to travel around obstacles in the path of the tubing.
While the work hardening of the drawing process used to size the tubing makes the copper hard or rigid, it is carefully annealed to make it soft again; it is, therefore, more expensive to produce than non-annealed, rigid copper tubing.
It can how to become a cs in india joined by any of the three methods used for rigid copper, and it is the only type of copper tubing suitable for flare connections.
Soft copper is the most popular choice for refrigerant lines in split-system air conditioners and heat pumps. Rigid copper is a popular choice for water lines. Rigid or "Hard" copper tubing is generally referred to as "pipe".
Copper "piping" is referred to by nominal pipe size, or the inner diameter. Rigid copper, rigid due to the work hardening of the drawing process, cannot be bent and must use elbow fittings to go around corners or around obstacles. Solder fittings are smooth and easily slip onto the end of a tubing section. The joint is then heated using a torchand the solder is melted into the connection.
When the solder cools, it forms a very strong bond that can last for decades. Solder-connected rigid copper is the most popular choice for water supply what metals can be soldered in modern buildings. In situations where many connections must be made at once such as plumbing of a new buildingsolder offers much quicker and much less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings. The term sweating is sometimes used to describe the process of soldering pipes.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting soldeed flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Brazing differs from welding in what makes my tomatoes split it does not involve melting the work pieces and from soldering in using higher temperatures for a similar process while also requiring much more closely fitted parts than when soldering. The filler metal flows into the gap between close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought how to get serial numbers for software above its melting liquidus temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux.
It then flows over the base metal in a solvered known as wetting and is then cooled to join the work pieces together. What metals can be soldered fittings use a soft metal or thermoplastic ring the compression ring, "olive" or "ferrule"which is squeezed onto the pipe and into the fitting by a compression nut.
The soft metal conforms to the surface of the tubing and the fitting and creates a seal. Compression connections do not typically have the long life that sweat connections offer but are advantageous in many cases because they are easy to make using basic tools. A disadvantage in compression connections is that they take longer to make than sweat and sometimes require re-tightening over time to stop leaks. Flare connections require soldeted the end of a tubing section be spread outward in a bell shape using a flare tool.
A flare nut then compresses this bell-shaped end onto a male fitting. Flare connections are a labor-intensive method of making connections but are what metals can be soldered reliable over the course of many years.
Crimped or pressed connections to use special copper fittings that are permanently attached to rigid copper tubing with a powered crimper. The special fittings, manufactured with sealant already inside, slide over the tubing dhat be connected. Thousands of pounds-force per square inch of pressure are used to deform the fitting and compress the sealant against the inner copper tubing, creating a water-tight seal.
The advantages of this method are that it should last as long as the tubing, it takes less time to complete than other methods, it is cleaner in both appearance and the materials used to make the connection, and no open flame is used during the connection process.
The disadvantages are that the fittings used are harder to find and cost significantly more than sweat-type fittings. Common wall-thicknesses what metals can be soldered copper tubing jetals the U. Types K and L are generally available in both hard drawn straight sections and in rolls of soft annealed tubing, whereas type M and DWV are usually only available in hard drawn straight sections.
This is an incorrect assumption. The inside diameter varies according to the thickness of the mwtals wall, which differs according to pipe size, material, and grade: the inside diameter is equal to the outside diameter, less twice the wall thickness. The North American refrigeration industry uses copper pipe designated ACR air conditioning and refrigeration field services pipe and tubing, which is sized directly by its outside diameter OD and a typed letter indicating wall thickness.
ACR pipe is manufactured without processing oils that would be incompatible with the oils used to lubricate the compressors in the air conditioning system. In both the U. In the plumbing trade, the size of copper tubing is measured by its outside diameter in millimeters. Common sizes are 15 mm and 22 mm. Tubing in 8 mm and 10 mm outside diameters is called a "micro bore" and is easier to install, although there is a slightly increased risk of blockage from scale or debris.
It is sometimes used for central heating systems, and 15 mm adapters are used to connect it to radiator valves. For example, DN20 is the size for copper pipe with an outside diameter of While pipe sizes in Australia are inch-based, they are classified by outside rather than inside diameter e. Effectively, New Zealand pipes measure the same as U. Generally, copper tubes are soldered directly into copper or brass fittings, although compressioncrimpor flare fittings are also used.
Some studies have shown significant leaching of the lead into the potable water stream, particularly after long periods of low usage, followed by peak demand periods. In hard water applications, shortly after installation, the interior of the what album is buy you a drank on will be coated with the deposited minerals that had been dissolved in the water, and therefore the vast majority of exposed lead is prevented from entering the potable water.
Building codes throughout the U. In Australia, copper tubes are generally brazed with silver-containing brazing rods rather than soldered. This type of connection ensures a stronger bond between pipework and does not utilize any lead-based materials. In Australia, copper pipes are used for both water and gas connections. The use of galvanized or black iron is permitted by the Australian Standards but is not common practice.
Copper water tubes are susceptible to cold water pitting caused by contamination of the pipe interior, typically with soldering flux ; erosion corrosion caused by high speed or turbulent flow; and stray current corrosion caused by poor electrical wiring technique, such as improper grounding and bonding. Pinhole leaks with pitting initiating on the exterior surface of the pipe can occur if copper piping is improperly grounded or bonded.
The phenomenon is known technically as stray current corrosion or electrolytic pitting. Pin-holing due to poor grounding or poor wnat occurs typically in homes where the original plumbing has been modified; homeowners may find that a new plastic water filtration device or plastic repair wha has interrupted the water pipe's electrical continuity to ground, when they start seeing pinhole water leaks after a recent wyat.
Damage occurs rapidly, usually becoming obvious about six months after the ground interruption. Correctly installed plumbing appliances will have a copper how to replace bike brake pads jumper cable connecting the interrupted pipe sections. Pinhole leaks from stray current corrosion can result in high plumbing bills and require the replacement of the whwt water line.
The cause is fundamentally an electrical defect, not a plumbing defect; once the plumbing damage is repaired, an electrician should promptly be consulted to evaluate the grounding and bonding of the entire plumbing and electrical systems. The difference between ne ground and a bond is subtle. See Groundfor a complete description. Stray current corrosion occurs because: 1 the piping system has been connected accidentally or intentionally to a DC voltage source; 2 the piping does not have metal-to-metal electrical continuity throughout its xoldered or 3 if the voltage source is AC, one or more naturally occurring minerals coating the pipe interior may act as a rectifier, converting AC current to DC.
The DC voltage forces the water within the piping to act as an electrical conductor an electrolyte. Electric current leaves the copper pipe, moves through the water across the non-conductive section a plastic filter housing, for exampleand reenters the pipe on the opposite side.
Pitting occurs at the electrically negative side the cathodewhich may happen to be either upstream or downstream with respect to the water flow direction. Pitting whah because the electrical voltage ionizes the pipe's interior copper metal, which reacts chemically with dissolved minerals in the water, creating copper salts; these copper salts are soluble in water and wash away.
Microscopic pits eventually grow and consolidate to form pinholes. When one is discovered, there are almost certainly more that have not yet leaked. A complete discussion of stray current corrosion can be found in chapter 11, section Detecting and eliminating poor bonding is relatively straightforward. Detection is accomplished using a simple DC voltmeterwith test probe leads placed in various locations in the plumbing.
Typically, a probe on a hot pipe and a probe on a cold pipe will tell the user if there is improper grounding. Anything beyond a few millivolts megals significant, and potentials of mV are common.
A missing bond will show up best in the area of the gap, as the measured electrical potential dissipates over distance. The missing bond is usually located near the cold water inlet to the building, as filtration and treatment equipment are usually added there, but pinhole leaks can occur anywhere downstream or ehat from the interruption of electrical continuity.
Correcting the problem is a simple matter of either purchasing a copper bonding jumper kit, composed of copper cable at least 6 AWG in diameter and two bronze ground sooldered for affixing it the plumbing. National Electrical Code Handbook NECa section on bonding and ground for details on selecting the correct bonding conductor wire size.
A similar bonding jumper wire can also be seen crossing gas meters, but for a different reason. However, if building occupants are experiencing shocks or large sparks from plumbing fixtures or pipes, it is more serious than a missing metzls. Larger voltages may be caused how to stop taking pain medication a live electrical wire bridging to the plumbing and improper or missing plumbing system grounding.
Such a situation poses an electrical shock hazard and potential fire danger; an electrician should be consulted immediately. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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The talk page may contain suggestions. June ISBN Archived from the original on Retrieved MM Kembla New Zealand. Retrieved 1 August Handbook of Corrosion Engineering 1st ed.
An electrical crimp is a type of solderless electrical connection.. Crimp connectors are typically used to terminate stranded wire. The benefits of crimping over soldering and wire wrapping include. A well-engineered and well-executed crimp is designed to be gas-tight, which prevents oxygen and moisture from reaching the metals (which are often different metals) and causing corrosion. Companies turn to us for filler metals, fluxes and all the other tools you need to produce sound brazed and soldered parts. Fusion Inc., Fusion Incorporated UK Ltd and our international partners are here to serve you, worldwide. Contact Fusion today: USA: () - EUROPE. Soldered connections. Solder fittings are smooth and easily slip onto the end of a tubing section. The joint is then heated using a torch, and the solder is melted into the connection. When the solder cools, it forms a very strong bond that can last for decades.
Soldering is a joining process used to join different types of metals together by melting solder. Solder is a metal alloy usually made of tin and lead which is melted using a hot iron. The iron is heated to temperatures above degrees fahrenheit which then cools to create a strong electrical bond.
Solder is melted by using heat from an iron connected to a temperature controller. It is heated up to temperatures beyond its melting point at around degrees fahrenheit which then causes it to melt, which then cools creating the soldered joint.
As well as creating strong electrical joints solder can also be removed using a desoldering tool. Solder is a metal alloy used to create strong permanent bonds; such as copper joining in circuit boards and copper pipe joints. It can also be supplied in two different types and diameters, lead and lead free and also can be between. Inside the solder core is the flux, a material used to strengthen and improve its mechanical properties.
Filler metals used in soldering were once lead based lead solder , however, owing to regulations, lead-based solders are increasingly replaced with lead free solders, which may consist of antimony, bismuth, brass, copper, indium, tin or silver. Occasionally at the site of the joint, there are impurities such as oil, dirt or oxidation, the flux helps prevent oxidation and can sometimes chemically clean the metal. The flux used is rosin flux which helps the mechanical strength and electrical contact of electrical joints.
There are three types of soldering which use increasingly higher temperatures, which in turn produce progressively stronger joints:. A soldering iron is a hand tool used to heat solder , usually from an electrical supply at high temperatures above the melting point of the metal alloy.
This allows for the solder to flow between the workpieces needing to be joined. This soldering tool is made up of an insulated handle and a heated pointed metal iron tip. Good soldering is influenced by how clean the tip of your soldering iron is. To maintain cleanliness, a user will hold the soldering iron and use a wet sponge to clean the soldering iron tip prior to soldering components or making soldered connections.
In addition to the soldering iron, s older suckers are an important part of the soldering setup. If excessive solder is applied, these small tools are used to remove the solder, leaving only that desired. Soldering guns are used for applications where more heat is required as irons use lower power.
This tool is used for joining stained glass, light sheet metal and heavy electronic soldering work. When you need to solder intermittently, the soldering gun is much more practical as it cools much quicker.
Soldering is widely used in the electronics industry for electrical connections, such as joining copper to printed circuit boards. It is also used by plumbers to join together copper pipes. The reversible effects are why it is very useful in many industries, and you even see it employed in jewellery. TWI has been at the forefront of development and testing of electronic devices and sensors with over 40 years experience.
Find out more on how we can help on electronic and sensors. Brazing and soldering are in essence very similar in that a filler metal the braze or solder is melted between the two components to be joined. There are a number of reasons for unfilled joints following wave soldering, several of which are related to fluxing Support for SMEs. Software Products.
Go to Technical knowledge Search. Login Login. Members' Portal. What is Soldering? Contents How does it work? What metals are used?
Which flux can be used for soldering? Types Uses of a soldering iron What is a soldering gun used for? Industries Click here to see our latest technical engineering podcasts on YouTube.
How Does it Work? What Metals are Used? Which Flux Can be Used for Soldering? Because of the low temperatures used in soft soldering it thermally stresses components the least but does not make strong joints and is then therefore unsuitable for mechanical load-bearing applications. It is also not suited for high temperature use as this type of solder loses strength and melts.
However, similarly to hard soldering, the metal being bonded is heated as opposed to being melted. Once both the materials are heated sufficiently, you can then place the soldering metal between them which melts and acts as a bonding agent.
Uses of a Soldering Iron A soldering iron is a hand tool used to heat solder , usually from an electrical supply at high temperatures above the melting point of the metal alloy. What is a Soldering Gun Used For? Industries Soldering is widely used in the electronics industry for electrical connections, such as joining copper to printed circuit boards.
Services TWI has been at the forefront of development and testing of electronic devices and sensors with over 40 years experience. Brazing and Soldering - What's the Difference? For more information, please email: contactus twi.