Saturn: Facts About the Ringed Planet
Perhaps the most iconic of all the planets in our solar system, Saturn is heavily present in pop culture. It provides a backdrop for numerous science fiction stories, movies and TV shows, comics, and video games, including the Cthulhu Mythos, WALL-E, A Space Odyssey, Star Trek, Dead Space 2 and Final Fantasy VII. Mar 17, · The planets in order from the Sun based on their distance are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The planets of our Solar System are listed based on their distance from the Sun. There are, of course, the dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris; however, they are in a different class.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar Systemafter Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius of about nine and a half times that of Earth. Saturn's interior is most likely composed of a core of iron—nickel and rock silicon and oxygen compounds. Its core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogenan intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid heliumand finally a gaseous outer layer.
Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. An electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic fieldwhich is weaker than the Earth's, but which has a magnetic moment times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size.
Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's. The planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring systemwhich is composed mostly of ice particles, with a smaller amount of roder debris and dust. At least 82 moons  are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are officially named; this does not include the hundreds of moonlets in its rings. TitanSaturn's largest moon and the second largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercuryalthough less massive, and is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere.
Saturn is a gas giant composed predominantly of hydrogen and helium. It lacks a definite surface, though it may have a solid core. The combination of the bulge and rotation rate means that the effective surface gravity along the equator, 8.
Jupiter has times Earth's mass and Saturn is 95 times Earth's mass. Despite consisting mostly of hydrogen and helium, most of Saturn's mass is not in the gas phasebecause hydrogen ahat a non-ideal liquid when the density is above 0. The temperature, pressure, and density inside Saturn all rise steadily toward the core, which causes hydrogen to be a metal in the deeper layers.
Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium, with trace amounts of various volatiles.
The examination of Saturn's gravitational momentin combination with physical models of the interior, has allowed constraints to be placed on the how to prevent toe blisters when running of Saturn's core.
Inscientists estimated that the core must be 9—22 times the mass of Earth,   which corresponds to a diameter of about 25, km. The outermost layer spans 1, km and consists of gas. Jupiter's thermal energy is generated by the Kelvin—Helmholtz mechanism of slow gravitational compressionbut such a process alone may not be sufficient to explain heat production for Saturn, because it is less massive. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior.
As the droplets descend through the lower-density hydrogen, the process releases heat by friction and leaves Saturn's sywtem layers depleted of helium. The outer atmosphere of Saturn contains The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19—31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. Trace amounts of ammonia, acetyleneethanepropanephosphineand methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere. This photochemical cycle is ststem by Saturn's annual seasonal cycle.
Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's, but Saturn's bands are much fainter and are what order is saturn in the solar system wider near the equator. The nomenclature used to describe these bands is the same as on Jupiter. Saturn's finer cloud patterns were not observed until the flybys of the Voyager spacecraft during the s. Since then, Earth-based telescopy has improved to the point where regular observations can be made.
The composition of the clouds varies with depth and increasing pressure. In the upper cloud layers, with the temperature in the range — K and pressures extending between 0. Water ice clouds begin at a level where the pressure is about 2. Intermixed in this layer is a band of ammonium hydrosulfide ice, lying in the pressure range 3—6 bar with temperatures of — K.
Finally, the lower layers, where pressures are between 10 and 20 bar and temperatures are — K, contains a th of water droplets orer ammonia in aqueous solution. Saturn's usually bland atmosphere occasionally exhibits long-lived ovals and other features common on Jupiter. Inthe Hubble Space Telescope imaged an enormous white cloud near Saturn's equator that was not present during the Voyager encounters, and in another smaller storm was observed.
The satutn was an example of a Great White Spot how to pass driver license road test, a unique but short-lived phenomenon that occurs once every Saturnian year, roughly every 30 Earth years, around the time of the northern szturn summer solstice. If the periodicity is maintained, another storm will what to wear fashion bomb daily in about The winds on Saturn are the second fastest among the Solar System's planets, after Neptune's.
The color was most likely caused by Rayleigh scattering. Most scientists think it is solzr standing wave pattern in the atmosphere. Polygonal shapes have been replicated in the laboratory through differential rotation of fluids. HST imaging of the south polar region indicates the presence of a jet streambut no strong polar vortex nor any hexagonal standing wave. For example, images from the Galileo spacecraft did not show an eyewall in the Tye Red Spot of Jupiter.
The south pole storm may have been present for billions of years. Cassini observed a series of cloud features found in northern latitudes, nicknamed the "String of Pearls". These features are cloud clearings that reside in deeper cloud layers. Saturn has an intrinsic magnetic field that has a simple, symmetric shape — a magnetic thr.
Its strength at the equator — 0. The moon Titan orbits within tthe outer part of Saturn's magnetosphere and contributes plasma from the ionized particles in Titan's outer atmosphere.
The average distance between Saturn and the Sun is over 1. With an average orbital speed of 9. Astronomers use three different systems for specifying the rotation rate of Saturn. System I has a period of 10 h 14 m 00 s The polar regions are considered to have rotation rates similar to System I.
All other Saturnian latitudes, excluding the north and south polar regions, are indicated as System II and have been assigned a rotation period of 10 h 38 m System III refers to Saturn's internal how to adjust alkalinity in pool rate.
Based on radio emissions from the planet detected by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 System III has a rotation period of 10 h 39 m A precise value for the rotation period of the interior remains elusive. In Marchit was found that the variation of radio emissions from the planet did not match Saturn's rotation rate. This variance may be caused by geyser activity on Saturn's moon What is class in cpp. The water vapor emitted into Saturn's orbit by this systeem becomes charged and creates a drag upon Saturn's magnetic field, slowing its rotation slightly relative to the rotation of the planet.
An apparent oddity for Saturn is that it does not have any known trojan asteroids. Trojan asteroids have been discovered for MarsJupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. Orbital resonance mechanisms, including secular resonanceare believed to be the cause of the missing Saturnian trojans.
Saturn has 82 known moons 53 of which have formal names. Many of the other moons are small: 34 are less than 10 km in diameter and another 14 between 10 and 50 km in diameter. Titan is the only satellite in the Solar System with a major atmosphere  in which a complex organic chemistry occurs. It is the only satellite with hydrocarbon lakes. Saturn's moon Enceladuswhich seems similar in chemical makeup to comets,  has often been regarded as a potential habitat for microbial life.
Saturn is probably best known for the system of planetary rings that makes it visually unique. There are two main hypotheses regarding the origin of the rings.
One hypothesis is that how to delete prediction history on ps3 rings are remnants of a destroyed moon of Saturn. The second hypothesis is that the rings are left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn was formed.
Some ice in the E ring comes from the moon Enceladus's geysers. This abundance variance may be explained by meteor bombardment. Beyond the main rings, at a distance of 12 million km from the planet aaturn the sparse Phoebe ring.
Some of the moons of Saturn, including Pandora and Prometheusact as shepherd moons to confine the rings and prevent them from spreading out.
The observation and exploration of Saturn can be divided into three phases. The first phase is ancient observations such as with the naked eyebefore the invention of modern telescopes. The second phase began in the 17th century, with telescopic observations from Earth, which improved over time. The third phase is visitation by space probesin orbit or on flyby. In the 21st century, telescopic observations continue from Earth including Earth-orbiting observatories like what is apple cider vinegar with mother benefits Hubble Space Telescope and, until its retirementfrom the Cassini orbiter around Saturn.
Saturn has been known since prehistoric times,  and in early recorded history it was a major character in various mythologies. Babylonian astronomers systematically observed and recorded the movements of Saturn. The Greek scientist Ptolemy based his calculations of Saturn's orbit on observations he made while it was in opposition. Saturn jn known as " Shani " and judges everyone based on the good and bad deeds performed in life.
This was based on Five Elements which were traditionally used to classify sprint triathlon what to wear elements. In ancient HebrewSaturn is called 'Shabbathai'. Saturn's rings require at least a mm-diameter telescope  to resolve and thus were not known to exist until Christiaan Huygens saw them in tne Galileowith his primitive telescope in  incorrectly thought of Saturn's appearing not quite round as two moons on Saturn's sides.
InCassini discovered the gap now known as the Cassini Division. No further discoveries of significance were made until when William Herschel discovered two further moons, Mimas and Enceladus.
The irregularly shaped satellite Hyperionwhich has a resonance with Titan, was discovered in by a British team. In William Henry Pickering qhat Phoebe, a highly irregular satellite that does not rotate synchronously with Saturn as the larger moons do.
During the early 20th century, research on Titan led to the confirmation in that it had a thick atmosphere — a feature unique among the Solar System's moons.
Pioneer 11 made the first flyby of Saturn sokar Septemberwhen it passed within 20, km of the planet's cloud tops.
Cassini Legacy Site
Saturn, second largest planet of the solar system in mass and size and the sixth nearest planet in distance to the Sun. In the night sky Saturn is easily visible to the unaided eye as a non-twinkling point of light. When viewed through even a small telescope, the planet encircled by its magnificent rings is arguably the most sublime object in the solar system. Jan 22, · The sixth planet from the sun, Saturn is the second gas giant in the system and the second largest planet. Saturn was the furthest of the planets known to ancient humans and is named after the Roman god of agriculture (Cronos in Greek). As it is a gas giant, Saturn is composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. Saturn; Uranus; Neptune Solar System portal Star portal: This is a partial list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius, and divided into several size classes. These lists can also be sorted according to an object's mass and, for the largest objects, volume, density and surface gravity, insofar as.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in our solar system. Adorned with a dazzling system of icy rings, Saturn is unique among the planets. It is not the only planet to have rings, but none are as spectacular or as complex as Saturn's.
Like fellow gas giant Jupiter, Saturn is a massive ball made mostly of hydrogen and helium. Surrounded by more than 60 known moons, Saturn is home to some of the most fascinating landscapes in our solar system. From the jets of water that spray from Enceladus to the methane lakes on smoggy Titan, the Saturn system is a rich source of scientific discovery and still holds many mysteries.
The farthest planet from Earth discovered by the unaided human eye, Saturn has been known since ancient times. The planet is named for the Roman god of agriculture and wealth, who was also the father of Jupiter.
With a radius of 36, If Earth were the size of a nickel, Saturn would be about as big as a volleyball. From an average distance of million miles 1. One astronomical unit abbreviated as AU , is the distance from the Sun to Earth. From this distance, it takes sunlight 80 minutes to travel from the Sun to Saturn. Saturn has the second-shortest day in the solar system. One day on Saturn takes only Its axis is tilted by This means that, like Earth, Saturn experiences seasons.
Like Jupiter, Saturn is made mostly of hydrogen and helium. At Saturn's center is a dense core of metals like iron and nickel surrounded by rocky material and other compounds solidified by the intense pressure and heat. It is enveloped by liquid metallic hydrogen inside a layer of liquid hydrogen—similar to Jupiter's core but considerably smaller.
It's hard to imagine, but Saturn is the only planet in our solar system whose average density is less than water. The giant gas planet could float in a bathtub if such a colossal thing existed. Saturn took shape when the rest of the solar system formed about 4. About 4 billion years ago, Saturn settled into its current position in the outer solar system, where it is the sixth planet from the Sun. Like Jupiter, Saturn is mostly made of hydrogen and helium, the same two main components that make up the Sun.
The planet is mostly swirling gases and liquids deeper down. The extreme pressures and temperatures deep inside the planet crush, melt and vaporize spacecraft trying to fly into the planet. Saturn is blanketed with clouds that appear as faint stripes, jet streams and storms. The planet is many different shades of yellow, brown and grey. Winds in the upper atmosphere reach 1, feet per second meters per second in the equatorial region.
In contrast, the strongest hurricane-force winds on Earth top out at about feet per second meters per second. And the pressure—the same kind you feel when you dive deep underwater—is so powerful it squeezes gas into liquid.
Saturn's north pole has an interesting atmospheric feature—a six-sided jet stream. This hexagon-shaped pattern was first noticed in images from the Voyager I spacecraft and has been more closely observed by the Cassini spacecraft since.
Spanning about 20, miles 30, kilometers across, the hexagon is a wavy jet stream of mile-per-hour winds about kilometers per hour with a massive, rotating storm at the center. There is no weather feature like it anywhere else in the solar system. Saturn's magnetic field is smaller than Jupiter's but still times as powerful as Earth's. Saturn, the rings, and many of the satellites lie totally within Saturn's enormous magnetosphere, the region of space in which the behavior of electrically charged particles is influenced more by Saturn's magnetic field than by the solar wind.
Aurorae occur when charged particles spiral into a planet's atmosphere along magnetic field lines. On Earth, these charged particles come from the solar wind. Cassini showed that at least some of Saturn's aurorae are like Jupiter's and are largely unaffected by the solar wind. Instead, these aurorae are caused by a combination of particles ejected from Saturn's moons and Saturn's magnetic field's rapid rotation rate. But these "non-solar-originating" aurorae are not completely understood yet.
Saturn's rings are thought to be pieces of comets, asteroids or shattered moons that broke up before they reached the planet, torn apart by Saturn's powerful gravity. They are made of billions of small chunks of ice and rock coated with another material such as dust. The ring particles mostly range from tiny, dust-sized icy grains to chunks as big as a house. A few particles are as large as mountains. The rings would look mostly white if you looked at them from the cloud tops of Saturn, and interestingly, each ring orbits at a different speed around the planet.
Saturn's ring system extends up to , miles , kilometers from the planet, yet the vertical height is typically about 30 feet 10 meters in the main rings. Named alphabetically in the order they were discovered, the rings are relatively close to each other, with the exception of a gap measuring 2, miles 4, kilometers wide called the Cassini Division that separates Rings A and B.
The main rings are A, B and C. Rings D, E, F and G are fainter and more recently discovered. Much farther out, there is the very faint Phoebe ring in the orbit of Saturn's moon Phoebe. Saturn is home to a vast array of intriguing and unique worlds. From the haze-shrouded surface of Titan to crater-riddled Phoebe, each of Saturn's moons tells another piece of the story surrounding the Saturn system.
Currently Saturn has 53 confirmed moons with 29 additional provisional moons awaiting confirmation. Saturn's environment is not conducive to life as we know it. The temperatures, pressures and materials that characterize this planet are most likely too extreme and volatile for organisms to adapt to. While planet Saturn is an unlikely place for living things to take hold, the same is not true of some of its many moons.
Satellites like Enceladus and Titan, home to internal oceans, could possibly support life. Introduction Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in our solar system.
Size and Distance Size and Distance With a radius of 36, A 3D model of Saturn, the ringed gas giant planet. Hubble Sees Changing Seasons on Saturn. This page showcases our resources for those interested in learning more about Saturn and Titan.
Saturn and Titan Resources. JPL's lucky peanuts are an unofficial tradition at big mission events. Saturn and Jupiter's Great Conjunction. Skywatchers are in for a treat soon as Jupiter and Saturn appear to merge into what's become popularly known as the "Christmas Star. The Great Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. Tips for photographing the sky during December's conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. How to Photograph the Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter.
A planet in an unlikely orbit around a double star light-years away may offer a clue to a mystery closer to home: the hypothesized "Planet Nine.
New research on nine craters on Saturn's largest moon Titan provides details about how weathering affects the surface — and what lies beneath. The next full Moon will be on the morning of Halloween, Saturday, Oct. Dragonfly Launch Moved to Cassini mission data provides strong evidence that the northern hemisphere of the moon has been resurfaced with ice from its interior.
The next full Moon will be midday on Monday, August 3, Hubble Sees Summertime on Saturn. What drives Perseverance's mission and what will it do at the Red Planet? Here are seven things to know. NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has started a road trip that will continue through the summer across roughly a mile 1. The competition will help advance the design of a mechanical rover to explore the surface of Venus.
The next full Moon will be early Sunday morning, July 5, There also will be a partial penumbral eclipse of the Moon.